Other Bone Diseases

(please refer links in Read More Information Section)

  1. Bone disease in kidney failure
  2. Paget's disease of bones
  3. Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Notes :

Adequate sunlight means exposure of face and hands to sun between 10 am and 4 pm for at least 30 minutes. Quality of sunlight diminishes in cloudy weather and polluted environment. Full body clothing (as in cold season or in hilly areas) and dark skin (as in India) occlude the effect of sunlight on manufacture of vitamin D under the skin.

Calcium in Diet

Average Indian diet contains about 300 mg of calcium. Calcium from vegetarian sources is not adequately absorbed due to oxalate and phytate content. Caffeine, carbonated beverages (contain phosphates), high salt intake and high fiber diet reduce absorption of calcium. Laxative abuse and increased intestinal mobility due to emotional instability are other causes of inadequate calcium absorption.

Some food items with high calcium content are as follows:
Milk and milk products, Shrimp, Crab, Fish, Egg yolk, Tofu, Colacasia, Gingelly seeds, Cumin seeds, Spinach, Agathi, Drumstick leaves, Amaranth, Soya beans, Cabbage, Beans, Ragi, Almonds.

ICMR Recommendations

Recommendations on dietary allowances for Calcium
(Indian Council for Medical Research)

Infants (0-12 months) 500 mg elemental calcium/day
Children (1-9 years) 400 mg elemental calcium/day
Children (10-15 years) 600 mg elemental calcium/day
Adolescents (16-18 years) 500 mg elemental calcium/day
Adults 500 mg elemental calcium/day
Pregnant and lactating women 500 mg elemental calcium/day

Vitamin D 400 ug/day (if exposure to sunlight is inadequate)