Many asanas can be performed in a supine position (lying on the back), known as shayanasthiti. Put your feet together with toes directed upwards. Let hands be near thighs with palms flat on the ground. Look straight up.
Place both legs together. Raise both legs to 90 degrees without bending at knees while inhaling slowly. Hold on to this position and look at your great toe. Do not lift shoulders. Return your legs to the floor slowly while exhaling. This asana can be performed by a single leg, too (Ekpada). More stretch on abdominal muscles can be achieved by raising straight legs to 40-45 degrees.
Raise both legs to 90 degrees while inhaling (Uttanpadasana). While exhaling, fold both your knees and pull them towards your chest. Press your thighs over your abdomen with hands interlocked around your knees. Your calves should touch the back of your thighs. Lift your head and neck and try to place your chin near your knees. Maintain this pose for some time. While exhaling, lower your head to the floor slowly and bring limbs to a resting state. This asana can also be performed with a single leg. You may rotate one leg clockwise while holding the other thigh pressed on your abdomen.
Keep some distance between your legs and fold them at knees to bring heels near buttocks. You may hold your heels with your hands. Raise your waist and back slowly while inhaling. Try to raise your body till your chin touches your chest. Stay in this pose for some time. While exhaling, bring your waist and back down to touch the ground. Straighten your legs and relax.
While inhaling, raise both your legs up to 45 degrees without bending at the knees. Now raise your head and shoulders, lift your arms, and hold your knees with your hands. Trying to touch or hold your toes with your hands leads to more stretch at your back. Relax your hands and contract abdominal muscles to stay in this position for some time. While exhaling, bring your back, head, and legs to the ground and relax.
While inhaling, raise both legs together straight up to 90 degrees as in uttanapadasana. While exhaling, move legs further beyond your head. Support your back with your hands and lift it to bring your legs and back in a straight line at 90 degrees to the floor. Do not lift your head. Maintain chin steady near your chest. Place arms next to buttocks for adequate support. The position will be as if you are standing on your shoulders. Look at your toes and try to maintain a steady balance. Hold on for some time while breathing quietly. Return to the original position while exhaling by bringing legs towards the head, slowly bringing down back to the ground so that legs are at 90 degrees. Bring legs down to the ground and relax.
Keep your right foot on your left thigh near the groin by folding your knee. Place left foot on the right thigh in a similar manner. Try to hold great toe with respective hand. While inhaling, lift your back and shoulders by pressing down elbows. Next, lift your neck to drop your head so that the top of your head touches the ground while your body weight rests on your elbows. Breath quietly and stay in this position (fish-pose) for some time while looking straight forwards. Then, place your head gently on the ground. While exhaling, release your hands and straighten your legs to get back to the original position.
Raise both legs to 90 degrees while inhaling. While exhaling, lift your back to move legs further beyond your head. Do not move your head. Keep your back as straight as possible. Keep your head steady by placing your hands around. Your chin will now touch the front of your chest. Do not bend knees and maintain legs parallel to the ground. You can try straightening your feet and bringing your legs further to touch the floor with your toes. Hold on for some time (plow-pose) with quiet breathing. While inhaling, lift your legs 90 degrees to the ground. Release both hands and bring back legs to the ground slowly.
General instructions about exercise
Do exercises in fresh, pleasant environment.
It is better to exercise on empty stomach (morning/evening).
Do not eat anything for about an hour after exercise. Sips of water or other fluids are allowed.
Wear comfortable cotton clothes during exercise.
Use proper footwear during exercise. Use of sports or canvas shoes recommended.
Breathe in and out normally from nose. Avoid mouth-breathing.
Concentrate on your exercise and exercise slowly. Never exercise hastily; do not jerk your joints.
Rest for a minute or so if you feel fatigue.
Concentrate on the joint or muscle group for which you are exercising.
Learn exercises, especially those for shoulder, from a physiotherapist.
One should feel relaxation of muscles after exercise. Increase in pain after exercise may indicate wrong method. Stop exercise and meet your physiotherapist again in such situation.
Be relaxed and maintain proper posture during exercise. It is good to look into a mirror during initial days of exercise.
Maintain a posture for about 10 seconds and return back slowly to resting position.
Start low - for some minutes - and increase your work-out gradually.
Exercise one sided limbs at a time initially. Simultaneous exercise for both limbs will be possible after some days.
Exercise twice each day. Regularity is of utmost importance.
Look for a friend if exercising alone gets boring. Exercise accompanied by music is quite entertaining.
Balanced diet is also necessary appropriate benefits of exercise. Meal timings should be strictly adhered to. Consult a dietitian for reducing weight.
General instructions for yoga practice
Yoga postures should be practiced in a clean and fresh surrounding. Do the asanas on a soft and clean mattress. Use clean, light, loose and minimum clothing.
Do the asanas in morning or evening on empty stomach. Eat light food half an hour after completing practice.
Warm-up, in the form of Soorya-namaskar is desirable prior to asanas.
All movements should be gentle and controlled. Do not jerk your body. Do not over-stretch. Do not use any force to overdo.
Watch your breathing. Breathing should be easy and natural. Exhale while you bend forwards and inhale while bending backwards. Never hold breath.
One should be comfortable in any asana. Do whatever little you can. Do not try to overstretch to attain a pose as given in pictures. Trembling during asana implies overdoing.
Steadiness is of utmost importance. Period of staying in a single pose will increase with practice. Try to contract only those muscles that are required for a particular pose while relaxing all other muscles.
Draw your mind away from your body and concentrate on breathing on attaining desired pose.
Select and practice a few asanas and try to master them.
There should not be any pain, fatigue or sweating during asanas. Do a resting asana if any of these appear. One should feel enthusiastic after a yoga session.
45 minutes of yoga practice each day is desirable. Pranayama may also be done for a few minutes. Regularity is the key to success.